Summer 2006 FM DX Log
Studies of lake inversion radio reception patterns
over Lake Michigan | 2002-2006

Muskegon | Fremont | Grand Haven, Michigan
Page Last Updated 20 April 2008

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Chris Kadlec / Lake Inversion DX

Chris Kadlec began studying the effects of tropospheric lake inversion on FM radio reception in West Michigan in 2002 after noticing some peculiar and abnormal patterns. Over the months and years, the locations changed and the FM dial has changed – formats, call letters, and even tower locations – but the patterns always remained peculiar. Kadlec attempts to study a phenomenon that few others have actively looked into. Hawaiian DXer Sheldon Remington, who is known for receiving mainland stations via tropospheric ducts in the 1980s and 1990s at a distance exceeding 2,300 miles and as far as Manzanillo, Mexico, in excess of 3,400 miles to the southeast, is among the early few who have shown that ducting over water is a great way to receive radio stations.

  Lake Michigan Bouy

Here's what he found:
  Read the full article: Studies of cross-lake tropo reception in varying conditions
• The study area   • Lake breezes and their effect on ducts and reception
• Patterns in reception and lake-level ducts   • Determining land-based vs. water-based tropo
• Rising elevation and its effect on stations   • The unexplained distant locals
• The varying height and elevation of ducts over water   • Communication interference via lake inversion
• The net effect   • Conclusion
• The science of intense cross-lake openings    
  Lake and Land Breezes: The Power Behind Lake Inversion Reception on Land
The Lake Breeze The Land Breeze

Due to the temperature differences fueled by the often cooler water beside warmer land, lake breezes can form during the daytime in the spring and summer seasons along the lakeshore. If it seems like radio stations are being blown onto land by the breezes along the beach, you might not be imagining it. The lake breeze can be a very important aspect to a lake inversion and can drastically change reception patterns as the breeze starts up or dies down.

Enlarge Image

Enlarge Image

How a lake inversion works

A duct with a vertical height of 50 feet will, in most cases, produce signals only within a few miles of Lake Michigan barring any unforeseen coastal conditions such as fog. A signal - whether radio, television, or even cellphone - does not typically travel straight across the lake in a duct. Since signals by nature refract off surfaces either toward the ground or into space, a signal caught in a duct will in most cases bounce between the top and the bottom of the duct endlessly until there is an opening in the duct.

  View Details
  A lake inversion

The superior mirage over Lake Michigan

While one may believe that seeing mirages is a rather rare occurence expected only in the deserts, such an atmospheric phenomenon is actually rather common over the Great Lakes. In his 1990 book "Rainbows, Halos, and Glories," Robert Greenler described reports of a mirage in Grand Haven on April 26, 1977. Those on the shore saw city lights as well as a flashing red beacon to the west. The beacon was positively matched to the Milwaukee harbor entrance 88 miles to the west. Ontario residents have reported sights of buildings, trees, highways, and oncoming traffic just off shore along Lake Erie just as residents of Cleveland have reported seeing the Ontario shore 50 miles to the north. Tourists visiting the Bil-Mar Restaurant in Grand Haven in 2006 claimed to have seen the lights of Racine along the beach in Holland, 87 miles away. Such conditions are produced by temperature inversions, the same atmospheric condition that produces cross-lake radio stations. Inversion layers can be seen by the naked eye on many evenings along Lake Michigan toward sunset, where a distinct layer of air can be seen just above the water's surface. On many days, the sun can be seen below the horizon moments after it sets. Despite this, there has been no evidence to show that the presence of mirages in any way enhances radio reception along the shore.

  Satellite Images Assisting in Duct Prediction

On a day of significant lake inversion reception, a satellite photo confirms the presence of lake-influenced ducts. Notice the lack of clouds along the lakes, especially on the east shore of Lake Michigan.  The following images were of lake-effect tropo on August 1, 2007 16:15 EDT (NASA Marshall Space Flight Center with edits by William Hepburn).

Lake-Effect Tropo Area Satellite   Lake-Effect Tropo Area Satellite

  The Study Area
The Study Area  

An overview of the study area
The lake inversion study was conducted in West Michigan’s central coastal region consisting of the cities of Grand Haven, Muskegon, Fremont, and Hart. Logs were compiled over four years in multiple locations spanning from 25 miles inland to the sand dunes that line the Lake Michigan shore. The main study location of the summer of 2006 was Grand Haven, a beachside tourist town of about 13,000 directly across the lake from Milwaukee. Locations included in the Grand Haven study ranged from parallel parking beside the beach bordered by tall residentially-developed forested bluff to the top of a sand dune used to monitor duct elevations and heights. Northern stations were logged at the Silver Lake sand dunes near Mears and at Little Sable Point, across from Sheboygan, Wisconsin. The study area was split into four different regions to assist in understanding reception patterns.

Enlarge Map  

An overview of the terrain (View Elevation Profile Map)
Michigan, a state having been greatly affected by a glacial environment, is full of small rolling hills called moraines. Such rolling hills play a great role in the reception, although usually the lack of reception, of cross-lake stations. Stations that cross the lake in low-lying ducts are prone to run into even the smallest of hills and never to be heard again. However, the region in which Muskegon, Grand Haven, and Fremont lie is nearly void of such moraines due to the presence of the Grand River and Muskegon River. This terrain, surrounded by small recessional moraines, allows for unhampered inland reception in this region for up to 30 miles in some areas, easily sending Chicagoland and Milwaukee stations inland to Fremont, where elevation quickly rises and a moraine landscape takes over.

  Michigan Moraines

  The Summer 2006 FM DX Log
PDF Document The 2006 FM DX Log: Download the full log (406 pages / 4.2 MB) Lake Michigan

The 2006 FM DX Log is the final product of four years of lake inversion research. This research was concluded with a final summer season of cross-lake tropo based in the ideal location of Grand Haven, Michigan, due east of Milwaukee on the beaches of Lake Michigan. The log can be downloaded in full (above) or in individual parts, as detailed below. The 2006 TV log, both E-Skip and Tropo, is included in this document. Maps, graphics, and data are included in the report, which makes up the initial 43 pages. This 43-page report is the largest collection of research on a lake inversion's effect on communications. Assisted by past research, public information, meteorologists, other radio hobbyists, and a car radio, this unscientific report includes virtually all of the collected data of Chris Kadlec's radio studies along the shores of the Great Lakes.

PDF Document The 2006 FM DX Log: Download the report (43 pages / 2.7 MB)
How to Use the Log   Lake Breeze Creates Lake Inversion Ducts
Local Condition Reports   The Lake Breeze Circulation
Frequency Discrepancies   The Land Breeze Circulation
Log Glossary   Looming and the superior mirage
Studies of cross-lake tropo reception in varying conditions   The Lake Breeze & Intense Cross-Lake Radio Openings
Lake Michigan Overview   Lake Water Temperatures Assisting in Duct Prediction
An Overview of the Fremont Site   Satellite Images Assisting in Duct Prediction
Fighting Lake Inversion Interference   Lake Inversion Study Images
Local and Lake Inversion Radio Station Logos   West Michigan Regional Study Area Map
West Michigan Tropospheric Lake Inversion Map 2005   Grand Haven: Summer 2006 Lake Inversion Study Area
July 14, 2005 Cross-Lake Reception Map   West Michigan Shoreline Lake Inversion Index
PDF Document The 2006 FM DX Log: Download the FM DX data (318 pages / 1.2 MB)
FM Log: Organized by Time of Reception   FM Log: Organized by Distance of Reception
FM Log: Organized by Frequency   FM Log: Unidentified Stations or Multiple Matches
PDF Document The 2006 FM DX Log: Download the TV Es and Tr log (45 pages / 147 kb)
TV Log: Minute-by-Minute TV E-Skip Log   TV Log: Day-by-Day TV Tropo Log
TV Log: Day-by-Day TV E-Skip Log    
  The Summer 2003 FM DX Guide / Additional Past Logs

In the summer of 2003, a digital log was kept of all stations received. Studies that summer were based in Muskegon, concentrating on the forested areas north of the city. However, the downside of the report was its organization. Organized by station as opposed to actual event, the log cannot be used to establish any specific patterns of reception. Compounding this, the logs were mostly taken inland instead of on the beach. This does not, however, prove useless.  Written logs show stations as logged by event, much as they do in every year since 2002, but the logs cannot compare to the sheer accuracy of the Grand Haven beach logs of 2006. The 2003 log is provided to supplement the final log of 2006. The science of lake inversions and their effect on communications signals was not fully understood at the time of this log.

Summer 2003 FM DX Guide

PDF Document The Summer 2003 FM DX Guide: Download the full log (67 pages / 702 kb)
All Stations: Muskegon, Michigan   Appendix C: Unknown Stations
Appendix A: Out-of-Area Logs   Appendix D: Local Stations Index
Appendix B: Other Logged Media   Appendix E: Regional DX Mileage Chart

PDF Document Additional Past Logs: In addition to the 2003 log, the 20-page 2004 FM-AM-TV Raw Data log is available for download, as well as the 2005 TV Es Overview. On January 8, 2008, a winter Es event affected the FM and TV bands in Southwestern Ontario, sending in almost 80 stations from Texas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas.  See the log here.

Plain Text File Bandscans: Burlington, Vt. August 18-19, 2007, Niagara-on-the-Lake/Grimsby, Ont. September 30, 2007, and Cheektowaga/Buffalo, NY April 2007 through April 2008 (plain text version / enhanced PDF version).

  Memorable Openings: Detailed Lake Inversion Logs

July 14, 2005 Reception Map (76 kb | PDF)

PDF Document July 14, 2005: An intense lake inversion event on both sides of the lake brought a full dial of stations to Kadlec in Muskegon, while John Rieger was able to get in on the action in South Milwaukee and contribute a log of his stations. Overall, the two logs were almost identical except for interfering local stations on either side, despite being 85 miles apart. A map of the loggings from each side was created to show the similarities during this event.

PDF Document August 6, 2005: A similar event to that of July 14th, an opening inland in Fremont produced 104 stations - the large majority of the Chicago and Milwaukee markets and even bringing in some low-powered TV stations from the other side of the lake. There was no certain evidence that the opening was a lake inversion, but instead was believed to possibly be a full tropo event in the early morning hours, which abruptly closed before 5 am.

View July 14, 2005 Map

PDF Document July 10, 2006: A major cross-lake event produced a total of 185 stations between the lakeshore and inland locations. Between Grand Haven, Muskegon, and Fremont, a record 37 stations were logged from the Chicago market, 24 from Milwaukee, 19 from South Bend, 15 from Green Bay, 13 from Rockford, 7 from Madison, and 5 from Central Wisconsin, in addition to stations up and down the Michigan shoreline as well. Inversion stations interfered with 25 local stations, while only 16 close-by stations escaped without any interference. Conditions included clear skies inland with haze and low cloud cover over the lake during the daytime hours, then clouds advancing inland after sunset as a cold front pushed through with northeast winds.

PDF Document August 4, 2006: An event rather similar to July 10th, this opening produced fewer stations but with greater stability and intensity as logged from Grand Haven, Muskegon, and Fremont. With air temperatures in the 90s and water temperatures at 80 degrees, this clear hot summer day created the perfect setup for lake inversion. Temperatures quickly dropped into the mid-60s after sunset allowing a land breeze to take hold and light clouds to develop over the lake. This did not affect the inversion much though as some stations were even stronger at the top of Five Mile Hill than at the beach. Overall, 31 Chicago area stations were heard, 24 from Milwaukee, 14 from South Bend, 5 from Green Bay, 4 from Madison, as well as stations from Kankakee, Lafayette, Iron Mountain, and Wisconsin Rapids. The opening interfered with or silenced 28 local stations, some being taken out by distant stations on neighbouring frequencies, and a mere 6 close-by stations escaped interference altogether, although some were significantly weakened.

  Meteorological Data: 2003-2006

Grand Haven July 23 2006 Lake Breeze

Grand Haven weather conditions were taken along the lakeshore 4 miles south of the Grand Haven City Beach radio site. Weather data, most importantly the wind direction and wind speed data, can be found below as recorded at this private weather station. Data for all days included in the 2006 study is provided. Days with notable cross-lake radio openings have an asterisk beside them. For past events prior to 2006, see below.

For the best viewing results: Close each pop-up window before opening a new one.

GIF File 10 May 2006   GIF File 30 May 2006   GIF File 19 June 2006   GIF File 09 July 2006   GIF File 29 July 2006   GIF File 18 Aug 2006
GIF File 11 May 2006   GIF File 31 May 2006   GIF File 20 June 2006   GIF File 10 July 2006*   GIF File 30 July 2006   GIF File 19 Aug 2006
GIF File 12 May 2006   GIF File 01 June 2006   GIF File 21 June 2006   GIF File 11 July 2006   GIF File 31 July 2006   GIF File 20 Aug 2006*
GIF File 13 May 2006   GIF File 02 June 2006   GIF File 22 June 2006   GIF File 12 July 2006   GIF File 01 Aug 2006   GIF File 21 Aug 2006*
GIF File 14 May 2006   GIF File 03 June 2006   GIF File 23 June 2006*   GIF File 13 July 2006   GIF File 02 Aug 2006   GIF File 22 Aug 2006
GIF File 15 May 2006   GIF File 04 June 2006   GIF File 24 June 2006   GIF File 14 July 2006   GIF File 03 Aug 2006   GIF File 23 Aug 2006
GIF File 16 May 2006   GIF File 05 June 2006   GIF File 25 June 2006   GIF File 15 July 2006   GIF File 04 Aug 2006*   GIF File 24 Aug 2006
GIF File 17 May 2006   GIF File 06 June 2006   GIF File 26 June 2006   GIF File 16 July 2006   GIF File 05 Aug 2006   GIF File 25 Aug 2006
GIF File 18 May 2006   GIF File 07 June 2006   GIF File 27 June 2006   GIF File 17 July 2006   GIF File 06 Aug 2006   GIF File 26 Aug 2006
GIF File 19 May 2006   GIF File 08 June 2006   GIF File 28 June 2006   GIF File 18 July 2006   GIF File 07 Aug 2006   GIF File 27 Aug 2006*
GIF File 20 May 2006   GIF File 09 June 2006   GIF File 29 June 2006   GIF File 19 July 2006   GIF File 08 Aug 2006   GIF File 28 Aug 2006
GIF File 21 May 2006   GIF File 10 June 2006   GIF File 30 June 2006   GIF File 20 July 2006   GIF File 09 Aug 2006   GIF File 29 Aug 2006*
GIF File 22 May 2006   GIF File 11 June 2006   GIF File 01 July 2006   GIF File 21 July 2006*   GIF File 10 Aug 2006   GIF File 30 Aug 2006
GIF File 23 May 2006   GIF File 12 June 2006   GIF File 02 July 2006   GIF File 22 July 2006   GIF File 11 Aug 2006   GIF File 31 Aug 2006
GIF File 24 May 2006   GIF File 13 June 2006   GIF File 03 July 2006   GIF File 23 July 2006*   GIF File 12 Aug 2006*   GIF File 01 Sept 2006
GIF File 25 May 2006   GIF File 14 June 2006   GIF File 04 July 2006*   GIF File 24 July 2006   GIF File 13 Aug 2006*   GIF File 02 Sept 2006
GIF File 26 May 2006   GIF File 15 June 2006   GIF File 05 July 2006*   GIF File 25 July 2006   GIF File 14 Aug 2006   GIF File 03 Sept 2006
GIF File 27 May 2006   GIF File 16 June 2006   GIF File 06 July 2006   GIF File 26 July 2006   GIF File 15 Aug 2006   GIF File 04 Sept 2006*
GIF File 28 May 2006   GIF File 17 June 2006   GIF File 07 July 2006   GIF File 27 July 2006   GIF File 16 Aug 2006    
GIF File 29 May 2006   GIF File 18 June 2006   GIF File 08 July 2006   GIF File 28 July 2006   GIF File 17 Aug 2006    

Past lake inversion events are available for review, which include conditions at Muskegon County International Airport just inland and at Muskegon State Park, along the shore. Provided by year are the lake breeze statistics for dates of major logged cross-lake radio openings. The weather data shown closely coincides with the notable increase in logged stations.

GIF File 21 June 2003   GIF File 28 July 2003   GIF File 16 Sept 2003   GIF File 25 July 2004   GIF File 14 July 2005   GIF File 26 Aug 2005
GIF File 22 June 2003   GIF File 29 July 2003   GIF File 07 April 2004   GIF File 26 July 2004   GIF File 22 July 2005   GIF File 04 Sept 2005
GIF File 01 July 2003   GIF File 18 Aug 2003   GIF File 23 April 2004   GIF File 27 July 2004   GIF File 05 Aug 2005    
GIF File 19 July 2003   GIF File 20 Aug 2003   GIF File 22 July 2004   GIF File 14 Aug 2004   GIF File 06 Aug 20052    
GIF File 21 July 20031   GIF File 23 Aug 2003   GIF File 23 July 2004   GIF File 16 Aug 2004   GIF File 10 Aug 2005    
GIF File 27 July 2003   GIF File 29 Aug 2003   GIF File 24 July 2004   GIF File 29 June 2005   GIF File 16 Aug 2005    

1 July 21 also produced a rare 335-mile isolated long-distance tropo catch to Northern Ontario during a massive rainbow
2 August 6, with calm winds, produced an intense cross-lake tropo event just hours after the lake breeze died down

  2006 Lake Inversion Logos: Local and Cross-Lake


Included below are logos of over 160 stations that were part of the Summer 2006 lake inversion study in Grand Haven. Not all stations are represented here, but the large majority of them are. Station call letters, cities of license, and logos are those of 2006, not the present day.

For the best viewing results: Close each pop-up window before opening a new one.

092.1 WEZY WI Racine JPG File View     100.1 WPJP WI Port Washington JPG File View
092.1 WGHN MI Grand Haven JPG File View     100.1 WVIB MI Holton JPG File View
092.3 WJPD MI Ishpeming JPG File View     100.3 WILV IL Chicago JPG File View
092.3 WPWX IN Hammond JPG File View     100.3 WNCY WI Neenah-Menasha JPG File View
092.5 WBWI WI West Bend JPG File View     100.5 WTRV MI Walker JPG File View
092.5 WDEK IL DeKalb JPG File View     100.7 WBYT IN Elkhart JPG File View
092.5 WLAW MI Newaygo JPG File View     100.7 WKKV WI Racine JPG File View
092.7 WAUN WI Kewaunee JPG File View     100.7 WOBE MI Crystal Falls JPG File View
092.7 WKIE IL Arlington Heights JPG File View     100.9 WWBR MI Big Rapids JPG File View
092.7 WYVN MI Saugatuck JPG File View     101.1 WIXX WI Green Bay JPG File View
092.9 WJZQ MI Cadillac JPG File View     101.1 WKQX IL Chicago JPG File View
092.9 WNDV IN South Bend JPG File View     101.3 WBFX MI Grand Rapids JPG File View
093.1 WIMK MI Iron Mountain JPG File View     101.5 WBNQ IL Bloomington JPG File View
093.1 WXRT IL Chicago JPG File View     101.5 WIBA WI Madison JPG File View
093.3 WJZI WI Milwaukee JPG File View     101.5 WJNR MI Iron Mountain JPG File View
093.5 WOZZ WI New London JPG File View     101.5 WMTE MI Manistee JPG File View
093.5 WVIX IL Joliet JPG File View     101.5 WNSN IN South Bend JPG File View
093.7 WBCT MI Grand Rapids JPG File View     101.7 WMRR MI Muskegon Heights JPG File View
093.7 WBFM WI Sheboygan JPG File View     101.9 WDEZ WI Wausau JPG File View
093.7 WEKZ WI Monroe JPG File View     101.9 WTMX IL Skokie JPG File View
093.9 WDOR WI Sturgeon Bay JPG File View     102.1 WLUM WI Milwaukee JPG File View
094.1 WGFA IL Watseka JPG File View     102.3 WQTC WI Manitowoc JPG File View
094.1 WJJO WI Watertown JPG File View     102.3 WXLC IL Waukegan JPG File View
094.1 WWKR MI Hart JPG File View     102.3 WYBR MI Big Rapids JPG File View
094.3 WFCX MI Leland JPG File View     102.3 WZOW IN New Carlisle JPG File View
094.3 WJKL IL Elgin JPG File View     102.5 WCMM MI Gulliver JPG File View
094.3 WROE WI Neenah-Menasha JPG File View     102.5 WNWC WI Madison JPG File View
094.3 WZOC IN Plymouth JPG File View     102.7 WVAZ IL Oak Park JPG File View
094.5 WKTI WI Milwaukee JPG File View     102.9 WHQG WI Milwaukee JPG File View
094.5 WTNR MI Holland JPG File View     103.1 WHME IN South Bend JPG File View
094.7 WZOR WI Mishicot JPG File View     103.1 WOGB WI Kaukauna JPG File View
094.7 WZZN IL Chicago JPG File View     103.1 WVIV IL Highland Park JPG File View
094.9 WCNF MI Benton Harbor JPG File View     103.3 WFXD MI Marquette JPG File View
094.9 WOLX WI Baraboo JPG File View     103.3 WGLX WI Wisconsin Rapids JPG File View
095.1 WIIL WI Kenosha JPG File View     103.5 WKSC IL Chicago JPG File View
095.3 WGVU WI Whitehall JPG File View     103.5 WTCM MI Traverse City JPG File View
095.5 WIFC WI Wausau JPG File View     103.7 WHIT MI Hartford JPG File View
095.5 WJZJ MI Glen Arbor JPG File View     103.7 WXSS WI Wauwatosa JPG File View
095.5 WNUA IL Chicago JPG File View     103.9 WRBR IN South Bend JPG File View
095.7 WLHT MI Grand Rapids JPG File View     103.9 WVBO WI Winneconne JPG File View
095.7 WRIT WI Milwaukee JPG File View     103.9 WWYW IL Dundee JPG File View
095.9 WERV IL Aurora JPG File View     103.9 WXRD IN Crown Point JPG File View
095.9 WKSZ WI De Pere JPG File View     104.1 WVGR MI Grand Rapids JPG File View
096.1 WLKG WI Lake Geneva JPG File View     104.1 WZEE WI Madison JPG File View
096.1 WMAX MI Holland JPG File View     104.3 WJMK IL Chicago JPG File View
096.3 WBBM IL Chicago JPG File View     104.5 WSNX MI Muskegon JPG File View
096.3 WMAD WI Sauk City JPG File View     104.5 WXER WI Plymouth JPG File View
096.5 WAZY IN Lafayette JPG File View     104.7 WDDW WI Sturtevant JPG File View
096.7 WCOE IN La Porte JPG File View     104.7 WFRN IN Elkhart JPG File View
096.7 WLJY WI Whiting JPG File View     104.9 WPCK WI Denmark JPG File View
096.7 WSSR IL Joliet JPG File View     104.9 WTKM WI Hartford JPG File View
096.9 WLAV MI Grand Rapids JPG File View     104.9 WXRX IL Belvidere JPG File View
096.9 WWDV IL Zion JPG File View     105.1 WOJO IL Evanston JPG File View
096.9 WWWX WI Oshkosh JPG File View     105.3 WFZH WI Mukwonago JPG File View
097.1 WDRV IL Chicago JPG File View     105.3 WHTS MI Coopersville JPG File View
097.1 WGLQ MI Escanaba JPG File View     105.5 WZSR IL Woodstock JPG File View
097.3 WQBW WI Milwaukee JPG File View     105.7 WAPL WI Appleton JPG File View
097.5 WEFG MI Whitehall JPG File View     105.7 WOOD MI Grand Rapids JPG File View
097.5 WYTZ MI Bridgman JPG File View     105.9 WCKG IL Elmwood Park JPG File View
097.5 WZOK IL Rockford JPG File View     105.9 WKHQ MI Charlevoix JPG File View
097.7 WFDL WI Lomira JPG File View     106.1 WMIL WI Waukesha JPG File View
097.7 WOZW IN Goshen JPG File View     106.3 WKLA MI Ludington JPG File View
097.7 WSRG WI Sturgeon Bay JPG File View     106.3 WMXG MI Stephenson JPG File View
097.9 WGRD MI Grand Rapids JPG File View     106.3 WSRB IL Lansing JPG File View
097.9 WLUP IL Chicago JPG File View     106.3 WUBU IN South Bend JPG File View
098.1 WGFN MI Glen Arbor JPG File View     106.3 WYRB IL Genoa JPG File View
098.1 WLKN WI Cleveland JPG File View     106.5 WHBZ WI Sheboygan Falls JPG File View
098.1 WMGN WI Madison JPG File View     106.5 WYTE WI Marshfield JPG File View
098.3 WCSY MI South Haven JPG File View     106.7 WJLW WI Allouez JPG File View
098.3 WJMR WI Menomonee Falls JPG File View     106.7 WPPN IL Des Plaines JPG File View
098.3 WLCS MI North Muskegon JPG File View     106.9 WFMR WI Brookfield JPG File View
098.5 WQLH WI Green Bay JPG File View     106.9 WMUS MI Muskegon JPG File View
098.7 WFGR MI Grand Rapids JPG File View     107.1 WFON WI Fond du Lac JPG File View
098.7 WFMT IL Chicago JPG File View     107.1 WIRX MI St. Joseph JPG File View
098.9 W255AC WI Sheboygan JPG File View     107.1 WZVN IN Lowell JPG File View
098.9 WKLZ MI Petoskey JPG File View     107.3 WKLQ MI Greenville JPG File View
099.1 WMYX WI Milwaukee JPG File View     107.3 WRSW IN Warsaw JPG File View
099.3 WJQK MI Zeeland JPG File View     107.3 WSJY WI Fort Atkinson JPG File View
099.3 WOWN WI Shawano JPG File View     107.5 WCCW MI Traverse City JPG File View
099.5 WPKR WI Omro JPG File View     107.5 WDUZ WI Brillion JPG File View
099.5 WUSN IL Chicago JPG File View     107.5 WGCI IL Chicago JPG File View
099.7 WZBY WI Sturgeon Bay JPG File View     107.9 WLEY IL Aurora JPG File View
099.9 WHFB MI Benton Harbor JPG File View     107.9 WSHZ MI Muskegon JPG File View
099.9 WRZA IL Forest Park JPG File View            
  Related Resources and Articles
Coastwatch Great Lakes Surface Temperatures

Resources and Articles

Internet Resources

HTML Webpage William Hepburn's Radio & TV DX Information Centre
William Hepburn is a meteorologist as well as a DXer. His website is home to the tropo maps using the Hepburn Tropo Index, which is widely used to predict conditions most likely to produce long-distance tropospheric propagation.

HTML Webpage Worldwide TV-FM DX Association (WTFDA)
Formed in 1967, "the WTFDA is dedicated to the observation, study, and enjoyment of long distance propagation of television, FM broadcast, and other signals in the VHF-UHF range." Chris Kadlec is a member of this organization since 2005 and previously was the editor of the FM News column in the VHF-UHF Digest, the group's monthly publication.

HTML Webpage Mountain Lake VHF Propagation Map
These maps, simple experimental maps showing real-time VHF activity across North America and the rest of the world, are among the most widely used to indicate conditions ideal for E-Skip.

HTML Webpage NOAA Muskegon Real-Time Meteorological Observation Network
Current and archived weather data along the lakeshore from the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory in Muskegon is shown on this website, which also displays multiple webcams along Lake Michigan. Water levels are also included here as well as publications and more.

HTML Webpage Great Lakes Surface Water Temperatures
Michigan Sea Grant, a joint program of Michigan State the University and University of Michigan, hosts a website of valuable Great Lakes information, including maps of surface water temperatures down to a local level.

HTML Webpage A Lake and Land Breeze Primer, Dr. David Sills
Dr. Sills' report, the first chapter of his York University Ph.D. dissertation, is a great resource to learn more about lake breezes and associated land breezes, which are responsible for most radio and television signal behaviours along the shorelines of the Great Lakes.

HTML Webpage Surf Grand Haven, the website of surfer and meteorologist Will Beaton, is a popular local website that predicts weather especially for the lakeshore. Beaton's home is virtually a weather station and home to a webcam that is broadcasted on the website for the world to see. He is based a mere moment's walk away from the Grand Haven beach radio site used in 2006.

Surf Grand Haven

Reference Articles

PDF Document Lake Michigan Lake Breezes: Climatology, Local Forcing, and Synoptic Environment (304 kb)
Laird, N.F., D.A.R. Kristovich, X.Z. Liang, R.W. Arritt, and K. Labas, 2001: Lake Michigan Lake Breezes: Climatology, Local Forcing, and Synoptic Environment. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 409–424.

PDF Document A Lake Breeze on the Eastern Shore of Lake Michigan: Observations and Model (1.48 mb)
Moroz, W.J., 1967: A Lake Breeze on the Eastern Shore of Lake Michigan: Observations and Model. J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 337–355.

PDF Document Real-Time Prediction of the Lake Breeze on the Western Shore of Lake Michigan (272 kb)
Roebber, P.J., and M.G. Gehring, 2000: Real-Time Prediction of the Lake Breeze on the Western Shore of Lake Michigan. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 298–312.

  Site Photographs

Included below are photos from the DX sites of 2006. Captions are included with the full-sized photos, while the site location can be found by hovering your mouse over each thumbnail photo. Sites include: Grand Haven (Grand Haven Beach, Five Mile Hill, Inland Grand Haven), Muskegon (Pere Marquette Beach, Kruse Park Beach, and Inland Muskegon), Fremont (Inland), and Silver Lake (Silver Lake Beach, and Inland Silver Lake). All photos were taken by Chris Kadlec.

For the best viewing results: Close each pop-up window before opening a new one.

Grand Haven Beach   Grand Haven Beach   Grand Haven Beach   Grand Haven Beach   Grand Haven Beach   Grand Haven Beach
Grand Haven Beach   Grand Haven Beach   Grand Haven Beach   Grand Haven Beach   Grand Haven Beach   Grand Haven Beach
Grand Haven Beach   Grand Haven Inland   Five Mile Hill (Grand Haven)   Five Mile Hill (Grand Haven)   Five Mile Hill (Grand Haven)   Five Mile Hill (Grand Haven)
Five Mile Hill (Grand Haven)   Five Mile Hill (Grand Haven)   Five Mile Hill (Grand Haven)   Muskegon (Inland)   Kruse Park (Muskegon)   Kruse Park (Muskegon)
Kruse Park (Muskegon)   Kruse Park (Muskegon)   Kruse Park (Muskegon)   Pere Marquette Beach (Muskegon)   Pere Marquette Beach (Muskegon)   Pere Marquette Beach (Muskegon)
Fremont   Fremont   Fremont   Fremont   Fremont   Fremont
Fremont   Silver Lake Beach   Silver Lake Beach   Silver Lake (Inland)   Silver Lake (Inland)   Silver Lake (Inland)

Thanks for the assistance with this project: DXers Roy Barstow, Saul Chernos, Glenn Hauser, Michael Procop, John Rieger, Michael Temme-Soifer, Roger Winsor, Paul LaFreniere, Jacob Norlund, Bil-Mar Restaurant owner Howard Meyer; and meteorologists Linda Paige, Will Beaton, Dr. David Sills, and DXing meteorologist William Hepburn.

This page is Copyright 1999-2008 Chris Kadlec.  Please do not repost this information in any form without the express written consent of the author.